This is a transcription of the video from University of Subway lesson "Food Preparation". 
The text may be sourced from the text of the video, the spoken narration, or some combination of the two. Formatting of the text may be emulated or added where useful for clarity. Minimal text content may be modified to correct typographical errors.
This transcription is not a suitable alternative to actually watching the video (your progress in the video is recorded and can be checked by your supervisor). This is not meant to encourage cheating on the accompanying quizzes, the answers of which have already inevitably been pasted on their own first Google results anyway. This is not meant to infringe on any copyright, rather, it is shown here as a quickly verifiable reference for important details of operation of Subway restaurants.
Course Outline Edit
This course will provide you with the knowledge to properly prepare ingredients to maximize food quality and freshness and to minimize waste.
The topics in this course are:
Introduction to Food Preparation Edit
Food Safety Edit
It is easy to prepare fresh and healthy food. However, you need to follow health and safety regulations and SUBWAY restaurant guidelines to be sure that the food you prepare won't make anyone ill.
Contaminated food is very dangerous so you need to be on your toes when preparing food!
Food Safety Summary Edit
You promote food safety using these five practices:
- Wear gloves whenever you handle food!
- Wash, rinse, sanitize and air dry all equipment and smallwares that are in contact with food.
- Rotate food products using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) inventory system. Also, keep food products at the proper temperatures.
- If you question the quality of a food product, bring it to your supervisor's attention.
- Follow all SUBWAY procedures unless local health regulations are more stringent.
Vegetable preparation Edit
What do you expect from a sandwich or salad? For it to be fresh, crisp and tasty, right?
To ensure that SUBWAY customers receive the fresh products that are associated with our stores, you need to prepare vegetables every day.
This topic guides you through the preparation of vegetables.
SUBWAY vegetables Edit
There are four types of fresh vegetables that need slicing every day.
- Red or pink tomatoes: Use red tomatoes within 4 days of delivery and pink tomatoes within 8 days of delivery. You should never use green or yellow tomatoes. Use sliced tomatoes within 48 hours. You prepare tomatoes by washing, coring, slicing and storing in a labeled container.
- Green bell peppers: Whole peppers must be used within 10 days of delivery and sliced peppers must be used with 48 hours. To prepare peppers, you need to wash, slice, and store the peppers in a labeled container.
- Red onions: To prepare onions, you need to peel, wash, slice and store them in a labeled container. Slice onions during off-peak times so that the strong smell of the onions isn't overwhelming. Onions must be used within 48 hours after slicing.
- Cucumbers: Cucumbers must be used within 10 days of delivery. Once sliced, they must be used within 48 hours. Cucumbers should be prepared every day by washing, slicing and storing in a labeled container.
Slicing Equipment Edit
Preparing veggies? Where do you start? First you need to be familiar with the equipment SUBWAY restaurants provides for slicing.
- The vegetable slicer is used to slice cucumbers, onions and green peppers. It should be set to cut 1/8" (3mm) slices. The blades are very sharp, so keep your fingers away from them! If food becomes stuck in the blades, NEVER USE YOUR FINGERS to remove it!
- The tomato slicer is used to slice tomatoes. The blade is set to cut 3/16" (5mm) slices. The tomato should be placed core side down. Use a fast movement to slice the tomato successfully. Use your hand to catch the tomato slices as they appear at the back of the slicer. The blades are very sharp, so keep your fingers away from them! If food becomes stuck in the blade, NEVER USE YOUR FINGERS to remove it!
- The tomato corer is used to remove the core of a tomato or onion.
- The colander helps to drain excess water from washed vegetables.
Steps For Preparing Tomatoes Edit
Next, scoop out the core using the tomato corer and drain the clean, cored tomatoes in a colander.
To slice the tomato, place it core-side down in the slicer and push the handle with one rapid motion. This will produce 3/16" (5mm) slices. Always discard the top and bottom slice of the tomato.
Place a drain plate in the food pan and then stack the slices no more than two tomatoes high. Place a maximum of 16 tomatoes in a food pan.
Once the pan is prepared, cover the top of the pan with plastic wrap and place a lid on the pan.
Before placing the pan in the cooler, label it with the type of product, the time it was prepared, the date and your initials.
Steps For Preparing Green Peppers Edit
Now suppose you need to prepare green peppers. You begin by gently rinsing each pepper under running water. Cut in half, cut stem out and clean core and seeds.
At the slicer, cup 4-5 pepper halves together and place halves lengthwise into the food chamber. Remember to set the slicer to 1/8" (3mm) slices for peppers.
Next, place the food pan with a drain plate under the edge of the cutting wheel to catch the pepper slices. Make sure that the metal protector plate is in place to keep food in the chamber.
Apply pressure to push plate with one hand while turning the handle with your other hand to slice the peppers.
Steps For Preparing Cucumbers Edit
Each cucumber arrives whole and waxed. To prepare them, you first carefully wash each cucumber under cold running water.
Next, cut half an inch (13mm) off each end of the cucumber and cut the cucumber in half widthwise. Place two cucumber halves on top of each other lengthwise in the food chamber of the slicer.
One of the halves should have the thicker end toward the blade and the other half should have the thinner end toward the blade.
Place a food pan with a drain plate under the cutting wheel to catch the slices. Firmly push the push plate while turning the handle with your other hand.
Steps For Preparing Onions Edit
With onions, you need to peel and core them before you rinse them. Slice off both ends of the onion and then peel off and discard the outer skin and any green or yellow sections.
Once the onion is peeled, remove the tough woody core of the onion using the corer. Now place the onion in a colander, rinse in running cool water and then allow to drain for a few minutes.
Cut the onion in half from top to bottom and then place the halves with the core side facing the blade in the food chamber. Remember to place the protector plate on top of the onions! And make sure that the slicer is set to 1/8" (3mm). In some markets, pre-sliced onion is available.
Place the food pan with drain plate under the slicing wheel to catch the slices. Then push the plate with one hand and turn the handle with the other.
Hot Meat Preparation Edit
Preparing fresh food for the public is easy but it can be dangerous if it is not done properly. Incorrectly prepared meat can make you and your customers very sick, so you need to make the right decisions and prepare hot meats very carefully.
Our hot sandwiches have always been popular among our customers, so you'll want to make sure the ones you serve are the best they can be.
This topic takes you through the preparation of hot meats.
After completing this topic, you will be able to recognize the proper methods for thawing and preparing hot meats via bulk and pre-portioned methods and why you need to prepare them in this way.
When time and temperature are considered together, it's very easy to see how outbreaks of foodborne illness can occur. Four hours may seem like a long time, but it's not - because it's the TOTAL TIME that a potentially hazardous product can safely spend in the danger zone.
From manufacturing, delivery, food preparation and transferring to the front line - every moment until it's eaten. The time adds up fast!
All hot products must be thawed before heating. You write the type of product, time, date, and your initials on each carton or package that you remove from the freezer. These are hot products that SUBWAY restaurants provide.
- Meatballs: Remove the amount you need and place the carton in the refrigerator. A full carton of meatballs defrosts in 48 hours. Once the meatballs are placed in the refrigerator, they must be prepared and sold within 5 days.
- Steak: Remove the steak that you need from the freezer and place each package into a separate food pan to thaw. A 3 lb. (1.4 kg) package of steak thaws in 24-36 hours in the refrigerator, and the steak must be prepared and used within 5 days of refrigeration.
- Chicken breasts and chicken strips: Remove the chicken you need from the freezer and place in a food pan to thaw. Thaw time depends on the amount of chicken that you place in the pan. You must prepare and use the chicken within 5 days of refrigeration.
Dangerous Thawing Edit
Keep in mind, we always want to defrost products safely, under refrigeration. Not only does this help to prevent bacteria growth, but proper defrosting preserves product quality.
- Never defrost products in the microwave.
- Never thaw at room temperature. This would allow harmful bacteria to grow within the product.
- Never thaw in water.
Summary of Preparation Times Edit
- Steak takes approximately 24-36 hours to thaw, and a package must be prepared and used within 5 days of thawing.
- Meatballs take approximately 48 hours to thaw one carton and must be prepared and used within 5 days of thawing.
Bulk Meat Preparation Equipment Edit
- Stainless Steel Pan: If you don't have amber food pans, transfer the heated product into a stainless steel pan, before placing it in the hot well.
- Amber Food Pan: This pan can be placed in the microwave and then transferred directly to the hot well in the sandwich unit.
- Thermometer: Use a thermometer to test the temperature of the heated product.
Steps for Preparing Meatballs Edit
Once meatballs have been thawed, you need to prepare and store them. Then, when you are ready to use them, you heat them and finally transfer them to a hot well.
- Prepare: Take out as much thawed product as you need and transfer it into one or more amber food pans. Add the required amount of marinara sauce and stir it together with a large spoon.
- Store: Then cover the pan with plastic wrap, cover it with a lid and label it with the type of product, the preparation time, date, and your initials. Finally, you place the pan in the cooler.
- Heat: When needed, you take a single pan from the cooler and place it in the microwave. Use at least two cycles to heat the product to 165°F (74°C) and stir the product between cycles to make sure that it is heated evenly.
Placing Meatballs in the Hot Well Edit
Once you have heated the meatballs, test the product's temperature in three different places. When you are sure that all of the product is at the correct temperature, place the amber food pan in the hot well.
Bulk Chicken and Steak Edit
You can prepare chicken and steak products using the bulk hot, bulk cold or the pre-portioned method. When preparing them using the bulk hot method, you use the same steps as those for meatballs except - of course - you don't add marinara sauce!
Remember the product must be heated to 165°F (74°C), and only amber food pans or stainless steel pans can be placed in the hot well.
When preparing chicken and steak using the bulk cold method, you use portioning scoops to measure the products.
Prepare: Take out as much thawed product as you need and transfer it into a black food pan.
Store: Place product in bulk in a food pan in the sandwich unit along with the corresponding scoop. Steak may have two scoops placed in the pan at one time (one for breakfast sandwiches and one for lunch sandwiches).
Pre-portioning Method Edit
Now let's take a look at the pre-portioning method. With this method, defrosted steak and chicken products are weighed into portions and stored cold in the sandwich unit. The portions are heated as customers place their orders.
Remember, meatballs are never prepared using this method!
Pre-portioning Steps Edit
- Step 1: First you place a portion tray on the food scale and set the scale to zero.
- Step 2: You add a 6-inch portion of steak or chicken to the tray.
- Step 3: Once you have filled the tray, you place it lengthwise in a 1/3-size food pan. Three trays should fit across the pan.
- Step 4: Each layer of pre-portioned product needs to be separated by a layer of deli paper. So you cut four sheets of deli paper in half along the fold and place a single sheet on top of the first layer of filled trays. You continue to layer the pan to just below the chill line. No trays should be placed above the chill line (the ridge on the inside of the pan).
- Step 5: Once the pan is full, cover it with plastic and place a lid on the pan.
- Step 6: Label the pan with the type of product, the time and date of preparation and your initials, refrigerate immediately. The product must be used within 48 hours of its preparation.
Pre-portioned Chicken Breasts Edit
To prepare pre-portioned chicken breasts, you place them loose in a 1/3 size food pan. They must be used within 48 hours of being placed in the sandwich unit.
Hot Production Preparation Edit
At the end of the day, empty remaining product into a clean food pan. Never mix meat products or hot with cold products! Cover the pan with plastic and place the lid on top.
Then label the pan with the type of product, the original time and date of preparation, write "Use First" and add your initials to the pan before placing the pan in the cooler.
Tuna Preparation Edit
Our tuna sandwiches have always been popular among our customers, so you'll want to be sure the ones you serve are the best they can be. Proper handling, preparation and storage of these products are necessary to guard against foodborne illness.
This topic guides you through the preparation of tuna.
At the end of this topic, you will be able to recognize the procedures for preparing canned and pouched tuna.
Preparing Tuna Edit
SUBWAY restaurants use a chunk light tuna product. This helps ensure consistency and quality.
Tuna and mayonnaise must be quickly prepared from chilled products.
Pre-Chilling Process Edit
Mark the tuna and mayonnaise you need with the type of product, the date, the time, and your initials and transfer into the cooler for 8 hours. This is called pre-chilling. This process allows the internal temperature to cool to 40°F (4°C).
After 8 hours, the tuna and mayonnaise should be ready to be mixed together according to the SUBWAY formula.
Daily Preparation Edit
In order to serve the freshest tuna product possible, we recommend you prepare tuna every day. Although prepared tuna can be held for 72 hours under refrigeration, you should only make enough for one day's use to minimize leftovers.
Open and Drain Edit
If using pouch tuna, skip forward to Flaking, draining is not necessary.
Opening the can: The first step in preparing tuna is to clean the lid of the can before opening it with a can opener. After opening the can, check to make sure that no metal shavings fell into the product during the procedure.
Removing excess liquid: Now, leaving the lid in place, drain the water by using the mechanical tuna press. Remember to keep turning the handle until all of the water is squeezed from the tuna.
If your store does not have a tuna press, drain the tuna by placing an empty gallon container in the sink. Carefully turn the tuna can upside down (keeping the lid in place) and place on top of the container in the sink. Apply pressure on the can with your hand to squeeze out excess water.
Flaking finely shreds the dried tuna product so there aren't any solid chunks. The machine also helps reduce manual contact with product. After flaking, you're ready to mix the product with your pre-chilled mayonnaise.
- Method 1
- By hand
- Empty the drained tuna from the can into a stainless steel colander. Take handfuls of the product and squeeze out any remaining water. With completely drained tuna in hand, briskly rub hands together over stainless steel bowl.
- Method 2
- Manual Vegetable Slicer
- Place drained tuna into the food chamber, cover with the protector plate and use setting number 1 to flake tuna into a stainless steel bowl.
The formula for tuna packaged in pouches is the same as cans. Once the tuna is flaked, simply add the required amount of pre-chilled mayonnaise to the bowl and mix thoroughly with a spoon or spatula.
Transfer the mixture into two 1/6 size food pans.
Cover the pans with plastic wrap and put on lids. Then initial the containers, write the type of product, the date and time, and immediately place them into the cooler.
Remember to use FIFO - tuna should always be fresh!
Preparation of Other Items Edit
Pre-prepared items that SUBWAY restaurants offer include pickles, olives, hot peppers and local items, such as sweet peppers. You need to ensure that each item is stored properly and used by its use-by date.
This topic explores the procedures for preparing lettuce and pre-prepared items.
After completing this topic, you will be able to describe the procedure for preparing lettuce and pre-prepared items that come in pouches and containers.
Pickles, olives and hot peppers arrive in pouches and several of the local products arrive in containers. To serve properly, you must pre-chill them to 41°F (5°C) or below.
Open the pouch or container: Snip a corner of the pouch or wipe the container lid before opening it.
Remove excess liquid: Drain excess liquid into the sink. You should leave a little of the liquid with the item so that it does not dry out.
Transfer into food pan: Typically it is a tight fit but all the content will fit in the pan.
Cover, label and refrigerate: Place plastic wrap on the pans, cover with a lid and then write the type of product, the time, the date and your initials on the item and refrigerate.
Lettuce preparation Edit
Lettuce is pre-washed, so you simply open the bag and place it in a food pan with a drain plate. Then you label it with the type of product, your initials, the time and the date and place the pan in a cold well.
Condiment and Sauce Preparation Edit
SUBWAY restaurants offer a wide range of delicious sauces for our customers. These sauces need to be transferred to squeeze bottles and when you do so, you need to ensure that the product is fresh, the bottles are clean and that you don't spill the product when you transfer it.
Like other pre-prepared toppings, you need to follow the use-by date on the product, pre-chill products and never mix new product with old when replenishing containers.
At the end of this topic, you will know the basic procedures for preparing condiments and sauces.
SUBWAY restaurants carry a variety of sauces and condiments, and they vary by region. Some examples are:
Basics for Sauces Edit
When preparing our delicious sauces, you need to follow these basic steps:
- Open the pouch: Cut the corner of the pouch.
- Filling bottles: Lightly squeeze the pouch over the opening of the bottle to fill the bottle. Be sure that you don't add new product with old product. Always ensure that the bottles are cleaned and sanitized before adding sauce to them.
- Storage: Open bottles have labels that clearly identify their contents.
Squeeze bottles have labels that clearly identify their contents.
Mustard, Mayonnaise and Other Sauces Edit
Depending on how a product is packaged, you'll use one of the following methods:
- Pouch: You cut off the corner of the pouch and use the pouch as a pastry bag - squeezing the contents into the sauce bottle. To store excess, you place the pouch upright in a food pan, cover the pan and label it with the type of product, the date it was opened and refrigerate it.
If product is packaged in a container:
- Funnel: For mustard, place a funnel in the squeeze bottle and pour the mustard into the funnel so it falls into the bottle. To store unused portion, replace lid, label with the open date and refrigerate the container.
- Sub Bag: Open a gallon container, place a sub bag over the opening, then holding the bag, turn the container upside down and squeeze the contents out until the bag is half full. Then tie off and knot the bag, open one end like a pastry bag and use it to fill the squeeze bottle. If product remains in the bag, place cut-side up in a food pan with a lid and refrigerate. If product remains in a container, replace lid, label with the open date, and refrigerate.
- Hole in Container: Clean the container prior to cutting, then cut a hole in the top lid near the edge or in the bottom of container on the edge. Squeeze the contents into the sauce bottle. If product remains in the container, cover the opening with plastic wrap and a rubber band, label with the open date and refrigerate.
Oil and Vinegar Edit
- Oil: Pour oil directly into the squeeze bottle and store excess oil in its original gallon container on dry storage shelving. Be sure to screw the gallon container lid back on securely.
- Vinegar: Pour vinegar into the squeeze bottle and store excess in its original gallon container on the dry storage shelving. Be sure to screw the gallon container lid back on securely.
Now that you have completed the "Condiment and Sauce Preparation" topic, you are able to prepare and store condiments and sauces in squeeze bottles and shakers.
Condiments used in shakers in the sandwich unit are typically stored in large containers in dry storage.
- Salt and pepper: To make the salt and pepper mixture, combine 7oz. (198g) of salt with 1 oz. (28g) of black pepper in a clear dry container and cover. Label the container with the date and time of the preparation and your initials. The container is then stored in the dry storage unit.
- Oregano: Oregano should be kept in its original container in the dry storage unit. You transfer it to a 10 ounce (0.30 liter) cheese shaker to place in the sandwich unit.
- Parmesan cheese: Keep containers in dry storage until they are opened. Once opened, the container must be refrigerated. Store 10 ounce (0.30 liter) shakers of Parmesan cheese in the cold section of the sandwich unit.
Completing the Food Prep List Edit
At the start of each day, you need to find out how much food you need to prepare for the day!
So, how do you find out about this? Well, SUBWAY restaurants provide two charts - Build to Food Prep Chart and Food Prep List - one lists the amount of food required each day and the other lists the amount of food you need to prepare for a specific day!
This topic explores the purpose of each chart and how to use each one.
At the end of this topic, you will be able to describe how the morning manager completes the Food Prep List.
Food Prep List Edit
As the Sandwich Artist, you check how much food is already prepared and then prepare the outstanding amount each day. You record the amount of food you need to prepare each day on the Food Prep List.
How to use the Prep charts Edit
Suppose that you are responsible for preparing cucumbers for the day. The Build To Food Prep chart states that you need two 1/6 food pans. You check and see that there is only one container that was prepared yesterday afternoon. You then enter 1 x 1/6 in the Cucumber row of the Food Prep List. When you have prepared the container, you enter your initials on the Food Prep List.